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Wednesday, January 13, 2016

How to take it to a new level this year

Hello world! The holiday hiatus is over at Keyboard & Rudder, and it's time for the new weekly posts to start rolling. Here's hoping your year is off to a great start!

As a side note before we begin, I spent the time away from the blog doing what many of you probably did: with family, having a big dinner and opening gifts. However, l've also been absorbed in writing a book; a project that has now become so large it will probably end up as two books. To that end, I've been reading piles of books and scientific papers on learning and expertise, taking a free online course called "Learning How to Learn" through Coursera, and using some of the material I've been poring over to use myself as a guinea pig and see if the research actually works.

It has taken up a lot of my writing time and energy, but I think it will lead to an exciting start to the year's posts. The first portion of the year will cover a large amount of material on how to get started learning to fly and how to make the process more effective and efficient (meaning cheaper) for you.

Since the beginning of the new year also brings along resolutions to break, let's begin with some suggestions on easy things to do (or do more of) throughout the year, broken down by pilot level. Pick and choose as many or as few as you like, and keep this year rolling strong!

All levels (including non-pilot, just curious, or haven't started yet)


Learn to use a flight simulator (Microsoft Flight Simulator X, X-Plane, or something similar). There are a lot of people who say that flight simulators don't teach you about flying. They are wrong. I could write a book about how much you can learn from simming—in fact, I'm writing just that book right now.

Read Fate Is the Hunter: A Pilot's Memoir. The best collection of one person's flying stories ever written.


Read North Star over My Shoulder: A Flying Life. Almost tied with Fate is the Hunter for best aviation writing ever.

Student pilot

Read Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying. It's never too early to read the book that's so good this blog is named after it!

Sign up for the FAA's free WINGS program. If you request it, they will email you when a pilot seminar is coming to your area. You can earn a real set of wings to pin to your lapel by completing different topics in different phases, and your private pilot checkride earns you them all at once! (I got a gold set of Master wings myself when I completed my ATP checkride.)

Two excellent, free resources are the weekly pilot tips email from pilotworkshops.com and Tom Turner's Flight Lessons Weekly. I am working on a short weekly email as well (details to come soon).

After a lesson, review what you've done by doing it in a flight simulator. Combine the sim with the Airplane Flying Handbook section covering what your lesson was about. If you really want to make fast (meaning cheaper) progress, follow along with the book Microsoft Flight Simulator X For Pilots Real World Training, which is the best book on the market (until mine gets done!) for blending the sim and the real worlds.

Private pilot


Re-read Stick and Rudder.

Solidify a "maneuver of the month". Pick something that you had to do for your checkride and practice it whenever you go up until you can meet double the standards you had to meet for your checkride.

Add a rating or different type of flying machine like a glider. I'm planning to get a seaplane rating this fall. I will never use it, as there are no seaplane bases in the state, but it is something that will get me away from the routine flying environment I spend every day in and make me stretch my skills. That last part alone makes it worth it, even if I never touch anything on floats again. Do something that makes you stretch your skills.

Go somewhere you haven't been.

Spend 30 minutes a week memorizing the boldfaced items in Section 3 of your POH. Most pilots make it all the way through their checkride without ever finding out that the bold items in the emergency section are supposed to be done from memory before even reaching for the POH!



Volunteer with Pilots & Paws, Wings of Hope, etc. There are dozens and dozens of organizations that would love your help, and you get to fly for a cause! Fortunately, to make it easy to find the one that is right for you, the Volunteer Pilots Network has compiled a list of all of these organizations.

Instrument pilot

 

Spend 90 minutes a week (just a half-hour three times a week) reading the Instrument Procedures Handbook. You can download it for free from the FAA's website or buy a printed copy on Amazon.

Once you've finished the Instrument Procedures Handbook, use those 90 minutes to make your way through 8260.3B - United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). It's dry and technical, but you'll become a better instrument pilot by making it through it. Your instrument training taught you how to fly instrument approaches. The TERPS manual teaches you why those approaches are the way they are.

Use the sim to practice two approaches per week. Over the course of a year, that adds up to over 100 practice approaches! That's almost as many instrument approaches as I fly in a year (although if I'm shooting an instrument approach, it's because we're in actual IMC that day), but it costs you nothing.

Don't just shoot random approaches, however. Pick two different kinds of approaches. Do one of them several times over several sessions, and do a new one every time, too. In other words, do something like this:

ILS A + GPS B
ILS A + NDB C
ILS A + LOC D
ILS A + VOR E
GPS B + NDB C
GPS B + LOC D
GPS B + VOR E
GPS B + ILS F
ILS F + NDB C
ILS F + LOC D
ILS F + VOR E
ILS F + GPS G
NDB H + LOC I
And so on.

Pick an ILS that has a DME arc into it, as that will really keep your scan moving. If you use a rotating schedule like the one above, you'll end up doing more ILS approaches than anything else. There are two good reasons for this. First, the ILS approach is the one you're most likely to encounter in real life. Second, the ILS approach is one of those things that is easy to understand, but hard to master.

In the near future, I'll devote an entire post to what makes a good practice approach, how that weird-looking interleaved schedule works, and why it looks like that.

Commercial pilot

Re-read Stick and Rudder. Seriously. I re-read this book every even-numbered year, and I still learn something new about flying every time I go through it.

Volunteer with Pilots & Paws, Angel Flight, etc. or any of the dozens of other worthwhile organizations.

Teach yourself something new. (Especially if you're planning to become a CFI.) Don't just read it, learn it! Next week's post goes into learning how to learn, so you won't want to miss that one.

You had to learn how to do chandelles and lazy eights for your checkride. Use the Airplane Flying Handbook (free from the FAA or buy a printed copy on Amazon) and break down those maneuvers into their smaller components. Focus on getting each of those smaller components absolutely perfect and you'll understand why you had to learn them instead of just mechanically performing them.

An example of something you can teach yourself is a concept that most pilots don't understand even at the commercial level: what manifold pressure actually is. Research it until you understand it (it's the opposite of what many pilots think it is), then explain it to someone else.

If you're planning to go to the airlines, absolutely read The Turbine Pilot's Flight Manual. I wish I had known about this book before I started ground school at my airline.

ATP


By this point, you already know what skills you need to improve (because everyone has something they could do better). Figure out what it is, make a goal to improve it, and achieve it.

However, the biggest thing you can do at this level is to give back to the aviation community. Mentor student pilots, talk to children about flying to get them excited about aviation and how they can become pilots themselves, answer questions on forums (and not just the airline pilot forums where everyone complains about how bad their company is), volunteer to take kids on Young Eagles flights.

The most important thing you can do with expertise is to share it, and if you've reached the ATP level, you probably have a passion for aviation that needs to be shared with others.


Next week, I'll get into more details about "Learning How to Learn", which is an excellent class that costs you nothing that may help you throughout this year and beyond. See you next Wednesday!

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The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Thursday, December 24, 2015

The Christmas Candy Bomber: A heartwarming true story

Best wishes to you and yours for a wonderful holiday season. There was no post last Wednesday as I was in the middle of a 13-out-of-14 day work stretch. The plus side of that is that it means this year (unlike last year), I am home for Christmas and New Year's Day.

After World War II ended in 1945, Germany was divided into West and East Germany. The Allies ran the west half and the Soviets the east half. In June of 1948, the Soviets began the Berlin Blockade, shutting down access to East Germany, including food-carrying freight trains.

The United States wouldn't take this lying down, and it certainly wouldn't allow the citizens of West Germany to starve. The Air Force created and executed one of the most amazing operations in history: the Berlin Airlift. Over the months that followed, thousands upon thousands of tons of food and supplies were flown into the city.

The operation itself is an amazing story all on its own. But inside that story comes the heartwarming tale of Gail Halvorsen, "The Candy Bomber", who came up with the ingenious idea of making tiny parachutes out of handkerchiefs and dropping candy to children along the way. In the video that follows, Tom Brokaw narrates, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir sings, and the Salt Lake Symphony performs "Christmas From Heaven", a beautiful tribute to Operation Little Vittles during the Berlin Airlift.



Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to all!

The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a former FAASafety Team representative and Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Wednesday, December 2, 2015

Why a vacuum failure in IMC is an emergency

Not long ago, I wrote a post trying to figure out why some pilots are more likely than others to declare an emergency. More specifically, I gave some ideas on why professional pilots are more likely to declare an emergency than other pilots. This is the opposite of what one might expect, since aren't the pros trained to handle anything?

The answer to that question is a qualified yes. However, sometimes "handling something" means recognizing when you need help, asking for that help, and then accepting that help when you get it. Marvin Gaye may have not been too proud to beg, but fortunately as pilots we don't have to beg: all we have to do is ask.

That post was sparked by a online debate with a pilot who flatly denied that losing a vacuum system—and therefore the attitude indicator and directional gyro, which are the critical sources of the information necessary to keep the shiny side up—in instrument meteorological conditions was an emergency. I have 10x the number of hours in the logbook than he does, yet I would declare an emergency immediately in that situation.

As it turns out, AOPA's Air Safety Institute has an accident case study that examines a fatal accident that happened precisely because that scenario actually happened: a pilot lost his vacuum system, yet continued on to an approach which ended up in a crash. You can watch it below:


This pilot was not stupid. He was a highly intelligent, competent, and accomplished surgeon. His story is not a case of "that could never happen to me". In fact, the first big mistake he made was doing the other pilot was saying was the correct response: being unwilling to tell ATC he had lost his gyros and therefore was in an emergency situation.

The fatal mistake he made was one that any of us could have had kill up at one time or another: instead of continuing on to his alternate, which had fine weather so failed instruments would be no problem, he wanted to complete the mission and end up where he intended to be. There isn't a pilot in the world who hasn't been strongly tempted—or even done it and gotten away with it—to do the same thing.

There but for the grace of God go any of us.


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The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Thursday, November 26, 2015

Crepuscular Rays on Thanksgiving Day

I have a lot to be thankful for this year, and I hope you do, too. I'm thankful that I got off reserve at the beginning of this year and have moved close enough to the top of the seniority list that I can get Thanksgiving Day off this year.

I'm thankful that I get to fly an aircraft that has all the safety and redundancy of a transport-category airliner but still requires enough technical prowess that my skills stay challenged, and I get paid to do it. It's not as shiny as some planes, and it gets no love from passengers, but it is probably one of the all-around best airliners for its job still flying.

I'm thankful that I get to connect loved ones, get people to job interviews, and bring soldiers home. But sometimes, I'm just thankful for the quiet moments aloft; for the minutes watching a particularly glorious sunset. Sunsets from the air last longer, aren't blocked by anything, and depending on the altitude and the conditions, sometimes you can see the blaze of red and orange fade to a pale blue and then to almost black on the opposite side of the sky. On evenings like these, you can see day and night at the same time.


On days when you're really lucky, something else happens around sunset: crepuscular rays. Their same comes from the Latin for "twilight", since that's when they make their appearance. When you combine sunset with the peak of fall, the results can be spectacular:


The next one combines some rays with a perfectly-placed shadow on the ground that makes it look like the plane is casting an enormous shadow:


The next 3 I'll let you enjoy on your own.




Since another term for crepuscular rays is "Jacob's Ladder", here's a picture of what I think looks like a line of angels singing a song of the heavens:


Or it could just be the rare "jellyfish stratiform". Whatever makes you feel most thankful on this Thanksgiving day. One of the things I'm most thankful for is all of you who read Keyboard & Rudder!

If you enjoyed these, you'll also like Weather Pictures Speak a Thousand Words,  Part 1 and Part 2. Thanks for reading, and see you next Wednesday!


Like Larry the Flying Guy on Facebook:





The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Tmeless yet contemporary

Here's a quick and easy way to have a bit of fun. Try to identify which of the following seven statements were said by Orville Wright and which were by Wilbur Wright:

1. Common sense is the most important trait for a pilot. Don't let the distractions affect your concentration. I think that goes for any sort of flying, any operating of machinery. You can't break the laws of physics, you've got to respect the laws of nature and aerodynamics.

2. You need to be very self critical and open to criticism from others: be it a ground observer, your instructor or your analyst. You always need to focus on how you could improve and develop good self-discipline.

3. Concentrate on what's necessary at the time. 99 per cent of what's going on doesn't need to be dealt with immediately, one per cent does. The ability to prioritise is vital.... Make sure you fly the airplane first and foremost.

4. I feel nervous all the time [before a flight] but I think that's quite good. If I didn't feel nervous I wouldn't be concentrating properly.

5. I feel nerves but I'm pretty able to control them. One of the things I have to work on is being too relaxed - that can cause mistakes. If you're too relaxed you might focus on something two or three seconds ahead, rather than in the moment.

6. I'm not an adrenaline junky, if I feel my heart rate rising then I've done something wrong. To me that's bad news. I want to fly... in a really disciplined fashion, I want everything to go as I planned.

7. What is chiefly needed is skill rather than machinery.... It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill.

Answers: #7 was Wilbur Wright. The other six were by neither of them, and were said in 2015 by two world-class pilots. Nonetheless, the advice they contain actually sounds so similar to what the Wrights (mostly Wilbur) wrote elsewhere that they are almost paraphrases of what the earliest aviators themselves said. The advice is as true now as it was over a century ago.

Normally, GQ Magazine isn't the place you'd go to for aviation news. However, the British edition of GQ recently had an excellent and interesting interview with two of the best competition pilots in the world: three-time Red Bull Air Race champion Paul Bonhomme and 2014's champion, Nigel Lamb.

The first six quotations above were from that interview. Paul Bonhomme is responsible for #1, 3, 4, 6. Nigel Lamb said #2 and 5. To see how timeless they are, go back and read them again, this time knowing their source and time, and you'll see that they are just as meaningful as when you read them while thinking of the Wright Brothers.

They also contain outstanding advice you can incorporate into your everyday flying or your flight lessons. Many of these I have already devoted one or more blog posts to, and most of them echo points I've made in the working draft of my upcoming book.

I use this advice every day in my day job as an airline pilot. Having several thousand hours and an ATP doesn't mean this doesn't apply to me anymore: "You need to be very self critical and open to criticism from others.... You always need to focus on how you could improve and develop good self-discipline."

After every flight, I still take some time to mentally debrief what I did well and what I could have done better. Even though the flight was successful and a planeload of passengers got to their destination uneventfully, there's always something I could have done better. The walk from the plane back to the crew room takes several minutes. During this time, I silently run down the list of the good and the not-perfect, trying to make the first column larger and the second column smaller.

It is telling that both of them mentioned nerves before a flight. Bonhomme said, "I feel nervous all the time [before a flight] but I think that's quite good. If I didn't feel nervous I wouldn't be concentrating properly," and Lamb said, "I feel nerves but I'm pretty able to control them. One of the things I have to work on is being too relaxed - that can cause mistakes. If you're too relaxed you might focus on something two or three seconds ahead, rather than in the moment."

These are two world champion racing pilots saying they get nervous. While my flying (and yours) doesn't involve pulling high-Gs a dozen feet off the ground, that doesn't mean we should get complacent. I still feel some nerves before every flight, whether it be a flight for pay or one for pleasure. However, these "nerves" are not what people generally think of when people talk about being nervous.

This is not a knee-knocking or teeth-chattering or babbling incoherently type of nervousness. Instead, it is a focusing kind of nerves. You run through your head what it is you're going to do, how you're going to do it, and what possible things might interfere with the first two. Think of the "nervousness" shown by the sprinter as she kneels into the chocks, already running the race in her head, or the fighter in his corner a minute before the bell rings to open the first round, running down the fight strategy in his head while he keeps in mind his opponent's weapons and weaknesses.

When this nervousness isn't there, complacency opens the door to mistakes. Once you stop worrying about the successful outcome of the flight, the flight is less likely to have a successful outcome. Some New Age self-help books say you can make your life better by challenging you to letting go of worry. The laws of physics turn that challenge into a dare.

The last one, "I'm not an adrenaline junky, if I feel my heart rate rising then I've done something wrong," describes me well, and many other pilots, too. It is also similar to what I say about my job. When people find out that I'm an airline pilot, sometimes they say, "Oh, that must be exciting!" My reply is, "Not if I'm doing it right."

Next week, I'll have a post full of clouds to be thankful for on Thanksgiving Day.


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The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Best rejection ever.

Our Dulles-Newark flight has a bit of a crazy flight plan. Instead of going anywhere near a straight line, it starts out in the right direction, then wanders off to the southeast for a while, which is totally the wrong way. It ambles to the east for a while once it reaches Baltimore, then finally swings northeast, which is where we need to be going.

Our filed flight plan is the red line; the route air traffic control usually has us fly is the black line shortcut. Chart excerpt from vfrmap.com.


This flight plan, in red above, isn't created to waste fuel or give passengers a nice view of the Baltimore Browns's football stadium. The out-of-the-way nature comes because of the need to connect with the bottom right portion of the "Big Dipper"-like route there. That corner is SWANN intersection, which is the transition we use to begin the RUUTH1 arrival into Newark.

Most of the time, this isn't what we end up flying anyway; it's only in the computer for planning purposes. Usually by the time we hit the first corner (which is WOOLY intersection), we are cleared direct to ODESA. This creates a nice little shortcut, which I've outlined in black above.

Notice the box in the middle that says, "CAUTION: UNMARKED BALLOONS ON CABLE TO 10,000' MSL". Chart excerpt from vfrmap.com.

However, that shortcut happens to pass through a restricted area, R-4001A-C. This is near Aberdeen Proving Ground (yes, that is spelled correctly), and is airspace set aside for a pair of tethered balloons (techincally, aerostats) that are part of the Army's JLENS program. Those are the "unmarked balloons on cable" mentioned in the box above.

Normally that is no big deal. Air traffic control clears us through it, since we're above 10,000 feet anyway. I often get a chance to snap some pictures of the aerostats as we pass right on through the restricted area. Here is a picture of them that I took on October 17, 2015:

There are two of them in this picture: one just above the wiper toward the center left, and the other close to the horizon at the upper right.
This is a cropped, zoomed-in version of the center of the picture above so you can see both of them.
Unfortunately, on October 28th, one of them broke loose. It traveled 160 miles over Maryland and Pennsylvania, and its broken tether—over a mile of it—scraped along the ground behind it, knocking out power lines along the way. It also led to the slowest air chase in history, as a pair of F-16s followed it on its rampage.

Two days later, we were flying our normal Dulles-Newark flight. Once we reached WOOLY, we didn't get our normal shortcut. After a bit, I asked for it. The controller's response was, "Sorry, I can't give that to you today because of that balloon that ran away from home the other day."

We chuckled and a Southwest pilot keyed the microphone, summing it up perfectly by saying, "Best rejection ever."


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The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.


Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Weather pictures speak a thousand words, Part 2: Weather hazards

Part 1 had lots of pictures of air masses demonstrating how much the atmosphere flows like water. This time, let's see what happens when the weather misbehaves.

Icing


The problem with ice isn't, as many pilots think, that it adds a lot of weight. In reality, it doesn't weigh all that much compared to the enormous performance penalty it creates by changing the shape and/or smoothness of the wing surface. After all, how efficient would your wing be if it were made from rock candy?

That nub on the windshield wiper is put there specifically to ice up. That way you can easily see if you're picking up ice, since it's right in your field of view--unlike the wings.



Thunderstorms

Some days, you have no choice but to dodge towering cumulus clouds:


At least there was a gap between those. Here's something you don't want to see sitting right over your initial approach fix:


Sure, thunderstorms are pretty when you're sitting on the ground:


They're not so pretty when you're trying to get from one airport to another, however. This is a classic frontal line, where a cold front plows through, lifting the air ahead of it and creating a long line of thunderbumpers:


And this (like the first thunderstorm picture above) one is a classic air mass or "pop-up" thunderstorm. It's easy to identify because it's all by itself:


In What do beer and thunderstorms have in common? I wrote about what helps a pocket of convection build into a monster like this. If there isn't enough energy to create something like the big guy above, you might end up with a failed thunderstorm that never happened, like this:

You can tell from the wispiness of the cloud that it tried to get going but fizzled out. (Not surprisingly, as I took that picture at 7:12 a.m. before the heat of the day added enough fuel to the atmospheric fire. There were thunderstorms there later that afternoon.) However, if there is enough energy to get the convection ball rolling, you end up with something like the next four pictures, each taken two minutes apart:



See how fast that grew? In less than eight minutes, it went from a little puff to a decently-growing towering cumulus. If I'd have had a chance to take more, you probably would have seen it keep growing even more. It's almost like a bomb going off, which is what this pocket of convection looked like:

That's why in the post Why there is no reason to fly through a thunderstorm in peacetime I compared the average thunderstorm's power and an atomic bomb's power.

Ever wonder what rain would look like if you could see it from the side instead of having it fall directly on your head? On the ground, you can't do that, but from the air you see it all the time. It's the misty stuff in these pictures:


And here you can see some virga, which is rain that evaporates before making it to the ground:


Here I am getting rained on while above the clouds! Why? Because there's another layer above me:


But as the day goes on and the sun begins to set, the ground begins to cool and more energy isn't being fed into the convection system anymore. Things begin to calm down and die out:


Even when it's cruddy on the ground, it can be beautiful above. Check out next week's post for how pretty it can be once you blast through the gray on the ground.


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The author is an airline pilot, flight instructor, and adjunct college professor teaching aviation ground schools. He holds an ATP certificate with a DHC-8 type rating, as well as CFI, CFII, MEI, AGI, and IGI certificates, and is a Master-level participant in the FAA's WINGS program and a former FAASafety Team representative. He is on Facebook as Larry the Flying Guy, has a Larry the Flying Guy YouTube channel, and is on Twitter as @Lairspeed.

It takes hours of work to bring each Keyboard & Rudder post to you. If you've found it useful, please consider making an easy one-time or recurring donation via PayPal in any amount you choose.